China's cold chain logistics industry needs to break through four bottlenecks during the rapid development period
With the expanding market demand for agricultural products such as fruits, vegetables, meat, aquatic products and vaccines, China's cold chain logistics has ushered in the development opportunities of the industry. At present, the market size of China's cold chain is around 250 billion yuan, and it is expected that by 2020, the market The scale will reach 470 billion yuan, and the annual compound growth rate will exceed 20%. But at the same time, China's cold chain logistics still faces four bottlenecks to be broken:
Insufficient development of the industry
At present, the development of China's cold chain system is unbalanced. In 2017, the cold storage capacity of East China, North China, Central China and South China was 12.45 million tons, 4.53 million tons, 4.31 million tons, and 3.24 million tons respectively, and it was responsible for the wholesale of most of the country's fresh agricultural products. It is less than 4 million tons in total with the northwest region, and lacks the construction of a regionalized production cold chain system. China's cold chain industry has developed rapidly in recent years, but the overall development is still in the primary stage. As of the end of 2017, the number of refrigerated trucks in the country was 115,000 units, far lower than the more than 200,000 units in the United States and Japan. The cold chain industry has a low concentration. The top ten cold chain operators account for only 10.5% of the total market share, and the top 30 operators only account for 17.3%. There is no industry giant with super integration capability. Enterprises cannot form economies of scale.
“Two highs and one low” raises industry costs
The cold chain industry faces the problems of high initial investment cost, high return rate in the operation process, and low transportation unit price. In China, a 5,000 square meter Wal-Mart standard-grade cold storage requires more than 20 million yuan of capital investment. Due to the unbalanced two-way logistics load in operation, the air return rate is as high as 98%, and the single transportation cost is twice that of ordinary logistics. It can only be 20%~40% higher than the latter. Due to this, the profit margin of the cold chain in China's fresh market is about 8%, while the profit rate of cold chain in developed countries can reach 30%. China's fresh agricultural products have a market scale of 100 billion yuan. In recent years, the fresh e-commerce industry is hot, but there is less than 3% penetration rate. The reason for the cold chain cost accounts for about 70% of the total cost. In 2017, hundreds of countries nationwide O2O fresh e-commerce is closed.